Alfred Nobel Short Biography | Famous Scientists

Short Biography on Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel was the scientist who discovered dynamite and the one who founded the prestigious Nobel Prizes.

He was born on 21st October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. During his childhood, the family moved to St. Petersburg in Russia. His father was in the business of sea mines, rifles, etc. Alfred studied at home as tutors were appointed to teach him and his brothers. He was interested in learning languages and was fluent in five languages. He also wrote poetry and novels. But according to his father’s wish, he went to Paris and studied chemistry. Later he traveled to Italy, Germany, and U.S.A.

His father owned an ammunition factory where Nobel began working with nitroglycerine in the 1860s. This chemical is highly volatile and Nobel tried to stabilize it. In 1864 Nobel’s brother was killed in the factory explosion while working with nitroglycerine. So Nobel worked on it to make it safer to handle. He discovered that if nitroglycerine is mixed with a porous mineral powder Kieselguhr, then this mixture is quite effective and safe. He patented it in 1867 and called it dynamite.

Nobel developed other explosives and set up factories first in Germany, then in America and Britain. This dynamite was comparatively safer than the others used at that time. Thus the military, mining industry, and construction companies placed large orders. This made him the ‘Dynamite King’ and he amassed great wealth.

Nobel also worked on various chemicals and developed synthetic rubber, leather, and artificial silk. He further discovered blasting gelatin in Paris and in 1876 patented it. He also invented the blasting powder ‘ballistite’ in France. He had 355 patents to his name. He owned factories and homes in major parts of Europe.

Nobel did not marry. In his last will, he founded a trust and most of his wealth was given to this trust. The interest obtained from the fund was to be used to award prizes to those who have done their best for humanity in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology, medicine, literature, and peace. (Prize for economics was added later) The first Nobel Prizes were given in 1901. Nobel died on 10th December 1896 at San Remo, Italy.


Q1. When was Alfred Nobel born?
Ans. Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833

Q2. Where was Alfred Nobel born?
Ans. Alfred Nobel was born In Stockholm, Sweden

Q3. When and where did Alfred Nobel die?
Ans. Alfred Nobel died in San Remo, Italy, on 10 December 1896.

Q4. Who discovered dynamites?
Ans. Alfred Nobel discovered dynamite

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